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Taurine: is known to have multiple functions in the brain participating both in volume regulation and neurotransmission. In the latter context it may exert its actions by serving as an agonist at receptors of the GABAergic and glycinergic neurotransmitter systems.

Yohimbe: can boost dopamine levels as much as 80%. The feel-good hormone dopamine improves long-term memory. This is the finding of a team lead by Emrah D-zel, neuroscientist at the German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases and the University of Magdeburg. The researchers investigated test subjects who were given a precursor of dopamine. Treated subjects performed better in a memory test than a comparison group, who had taken a placebo.

Alpha GPC: Derived originally from lecithin, Glyceryl Phosphoryl Choline is a phospholipid metabolite found concentrated in neuronal membranes. Unlike less expensive forms of choline such as choline bitrartate, Alpha GPC has been shown to be well absorbed, easily crossing the blood-brain barrier. Once delivered, it helps support brain function and learning processes by directly increasing the synthesis and secretion of acetylcholine. Heightened acetylcholine has been linked to memory, focus, mental drive, and REM sleep states.

N-Acetyl-Tyrosine: In dopaminergic cells in the brain, tyrosine is converted to l-dopa by the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). TH is the rate-limiting enzyme involved in the synthesis of the neurotransmitter dopamine. The feel-good hormone dopamine improves long-term memory. This is the finding of a team lead by Emrah D-zel, neuroscientist at the German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases and the University of Magdeburg. The researchers investigated test subjects who were given a precursor of dopamine. Treated subjects performed better in a memory test than a comparison group, who had taken a placebo.

L-Arginine Alpha Ketoglutarate: Touted to improve peak athletic performance. Suppliers of athletic nutritional supplements claim alpha-ketoglutaric acid may be an important addition to proper diet and training for the athlete who wants peak performance. They base this claim on studies that show extra ammonia in the body can combine with alpha-ketoglutarate to reduce problems associated with too much ammonia (ammonia toxicity).

Yerba Mate: contains polyphenols, which may benefit the immune system, relieve allergies, reduce the risk of diabetes and hypoglycemia in mice, contain compounds that, when extracted from green tea burns more calories, acts as an appetite suppressant and weight loss tool, increases the supply of nutrients and oxygen to the heart, may reduce the risk of heart attacks and strokes, increases mental energy and focus, improves mood, and promotes a deeper sleep

Vinpocetine: a noted supplement used for vasodilation and as a nootropic for the improvement of memory and cerebral metabolism. Vinpocetine has been identified as a potent anti-inflammatory agent that might have a potential role in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease.

Huperzine: Extensive research has revealed the biological mechanism of Huperzine, most notably its inhibition of AchE and secondary neuroprotective effects. Preclinical studies in animals provide evidence of increased Ach neurotransmitter concentration in cognitively important brain regions along with learning and memory improvements. These preclinical studies and the historical use of Huperzia Serrata as a memory supplement led researchers to investigate the possible benefits in cognitive disorders. Double-blind, placebo controlled studies have shown that Alzheimer’s and vascular dementia patients exhibit significant improvements in memory function after Huperzine treatment. Furthermore, non-patient populations display similarly enhanced memory function with oral Huperzine supplement. The low incidence of adverse side effects allows Huperzia Serrata and Huperzine A extracts to be used safely as nootropic supplements to support memory and neurological health.

CoQ10: is an oil-soluble, vitamin-like substance is present in most eukaryotic cells, primarily in the mitochondria. It is a component of the electron transport chain and participates in aerobic cellular respiration, generating energy in the form of ATP. Ninety-five percent of the human body’s energy is generated this way. Therefore, those organs with the highest energy requirements—such as the heart, liver and kidney—have the highest CoQ10 concentrations. There are three redox states of CoQ10: fully oxidized (ubiquinone), semiquinone (ubisemiquinone), and fully reduced (ubiquinol). The capacity of this molecule to exist in a completely oxidized form and a completely reduced form enables it to perform its functions in the electron transport chain, and as an antioxidant, respectively.

Bacopa: is an important in Ayurvedic medicine and has been used, particularly in India, for several thousand years to improve mental functioning, including comprehension, memory, and recollection. Clinical investigations show that it has strong antioxidant properties and may protect mental function in certain adults, while animal models have provided evidence that Bacopa improves learning skills. Bacosides, the active compounds in Bacopa, play a protective role in the synaptic functions of the nerves in the hippocampus, the seat of memory. Inside the hippocampus, nerve impulses are transmitted across the synapses and Bacopa is believed to help the body prevent the degeneration that impairs cognition.

Guarana: is noted for its potential effects on cognition. In lab studies, guarana increased memory retention and physical endurance when compared with a placebo.

Caffeine: A study assessing effects of caffeine on cognition and mood resulted in improved delayed recall with caffeine intake. A dose-response relationship was seen as individuals were able to recall more words after a period of time with increased caffeine.

Glucuronolactone: According to The Merck Index, it is also used as a detoxicant. The liver uses glucose to create glucuronolactone, which inhibits the enzyme B-glucuronidase (metabolizes glucuronides), which should cause blood-glucuronide levels to rise. Glucuronides combine with toxic substances, such as morphine and depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, by converting them to water-soluble glucuronide-conjugates which are excreted in the urine. Theoretically, higher blood-glucuronides should help remove toxins from the body.

* These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.